In 2015, Cuba has shown a worrying lack of rain as in the first seven months of the year only 70% of the usual average rainfall for the country during this period was reported.

Throughout the nation, the level of the reservoirs is found to be a lot lower than their full capacity, and the subterranean water sources are in descent with respect to the preceding months, which is owed to the high temperatures, responsible for a large part of the evaporation.

In 2015, Cuba has shown a worrying lack of rain as in the first seven months of the year only 70% of the usual average rainfall for the country during this period was reported.The summer climate in Cuba was accentuated with various records of maximum temperatures for the seventh and eighth calendar months in the Caribbean archipelago. A recently installed centre in the city of Bayamo in the Granma province in the east of the country measured a maximum of 39.3 degrees Celsius on July 29.

The tense situation created by the scarcity of water obliged the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources to actions which would alleviate the harm caused by the drought, principally in the most damaged parts of the country.

According to the experts, the month of July was dry in terms of precipitation registering a national rainfall of 89.6 millimetres which represents 67% of the historical record of rainfall at this time.

At the end of July, the 242 reservoirs run by the National Institute of Hydraulic Resources only retained around 3,224,000,000 of cubic meters of water, equivalent to 35% of their total capacity.

165 Cuban dams contain below 50% of their useful capacity and 118 of these dams do not even hold 25% of their useful capacity. Of the latter group, 26 dams are dry.

Faced with this difficult situation, the Civil Defence called for an increase in the vigilance of the drought and the rational usage of water in order to minimise the impact of this phenomenon, aggravated by the high temperatures.

The Institute of Meteorology also predicted the extension of the current intense drought, and the little activity in the cyclonic season during what is left of the year, indicating that the scarcity of rainfall could continue, affecting the availability of the valued liquid for the next dry period starting in November.

These factors determine low levels in the availability of water for the population, agriculture, industry and the services a large effort is therefore required from everyone in order to minimize the possible consequences.

Due to its condition in the archipelago in the Caribbean Sea, Cuba is highly vulnerable to the current climate change provoked by the emission of contaminating greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.

The current global warming causes the climate in the Greater Antilles to become hotter and hotter and more extreme.

Since mid last century, the Cubans have seen the average temperature of the atmosphere rise by 0.9 degrees Celsius, as well as the tendency for the decrease in rainfall in the east of the country with significant shortages in water since the 90s, as well as the occurrence of droughts that are becoming more and more frequent, intense and prolonged.

In accordance with the records, from 1966 to 2009 the sea level has risen 1.43 millimetres a year throughout Cuba.

For 2050, scientists predict an increase in sea level of 27 centimetres on the Cuban coastline, and the loss of 2.31 % of the littoral terrestrial surface due to climate change.

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